Then through a three-step chain reaction, water is sequentially converted to hydroxyl radical ().
The hydroxyl radical is extremely reactive and immediately removes electrons from any molecule in its path, turning that molecule into a free radical and thus propagating a chain reaction.
Permanganate can also be used for controlling the formation of trihalomethanes and other disinfection byproducts by oxidizing precursors and reducing the demand for other disinfectants.
Austenitic stainless steels are the best choice as they also have better elevated temperature strength than the ferritic family.
The higher thermal expansion rates of the austenitics can result in problems such as distortion and may lead to scale loss (spalling) during thermal cycling.
However, hydrogen peroxide is actually more damaging to DNA than the hydroxyl radical, since the lower reactivity of hydrogen peroxide provides enough time for the molecule to travel into the nucleus of the cell, subsequently reacting with macromolecules such as DNA.
ROS are produced intracellularly through multiple mechanisms and depending on the cell and tissue types, the major sources being the "professional" producers of ROS: NADPH oxidase (NOX) complexes (7 distinct isoforms) in cell membranes, mitochondria, peroxisomes, and endoplasmic reticulum.